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Design of data communication systems.


 

  The Design is a process of a system development with a certain structure, consequent stages and phases, and a set of procedures and applied technical resources, which involves cooperation of parties.

Development of new districts, increase of the data flow in the existing systems or reconstruction of outdated equipment require professional and competent activities of engineers, who would develop the Design Documentation.
Correct design solutions considering development of consecutive areas ensure full compliance with requirements of the Client, ordering the development of architectural, technical and technological solutions with the aim to fulfill the construction process.
The life cycle of any Project starts from collection of initial data and determination of preliminary design solutions, sometimes called the philosophy of the future system. Then the Client in close cooperation with the design company elaborates the Technical Assignment for the future system.
The Technical Assignment (TZ/TA) is the primary document for development of a system. The TA establishes the main purpose of the system, its technical and tactical features, quality parameters and technical economical requirements, as well as instructions on necessary stages of documentation development (structural, technological, program and other types of documents) and its content, and also contains some specific requirements.
Basing on the Technical Assignment, which includes the list of communication systems, sometimes over several dozens of them, the cost sheets for the design are compiled, and the stages of the Project are defined along with technical requirements to the future system.
The Design Documentation for Capital Construction Facilities is normally subject to the Expert Assessment.
The Expert Assessment of the Design Documentation and (or) the Expert Assessment of results of Engineering Investigation is performed through the State or Non-State Expert Assessment. The conclusion of the Non-State Expert Assessment body should be accepted by the Rostechnadzor (the Federal Environmental, Engineering & Nuclear Supervision Authority of Russia) just like the conclusion of the State Expert Assessment Body.
The Design ends up with the issue of the Executive Documentation updated during the Construction stage, when the technical solutions of previous stages are objectified and when the facility is commissioned into operation.

Advantages
Advantages
1) Allows to conduct a more detailed study in the design of complex integrated system;
1) Allows to obtain all necessary documentation in a shorter time;
2) Allows to organize customer service interactions in decision-making;
2) Runsfeweraudits;
3) Allows to change the technical solution adopted under Design Stage in the transition to the Working documentation stage.
3) Can reduce material costs for design works.
Disadvantages
Disadvantages
1) Need to expert Assessment at each stage increases the time of design;
1) Requires very high quality baseline data;
2Increased number of stages results in greater cost of design works.
2) Requires a clear interaction between customer services;
 
3) Does not allow for a detailed study of complex integrated systems;
 
4) Does not suited for the development of technical solutions to integrate into existing systems;
 
5) It is the only suitable for small systems, independent of total or existing structures;
 
6) does not allow you to change the solution after the release of working draft-without starting a new design.

 
During the Design Stage the sufficient data, needed for budget substantiation and the application of technical resources according to the required scope, in particular:
- The General Descriptive Note, which describes technical solutions made along with the chosen type and parameters of equipment applied and its main features;
- The General Communication diagram;
- The description of connections to existing systems and connecting lines;
- The Technical Solutions on electrical power supply, lightning protection and grounding systems;
- The Engineering calculations of radio base station coverage zones and of the radio relay channels parameters calculation;
- The Sanitary Certificates and the Calculation of Sanitary Protective Zones and Construction-Free Zones for the radio facilities under construction.
 
The Working documentation is a complete and detailed instruction for the assemblage of the system, including:
- Layouts and assembly drawings for installation of the equipment;
- Ways of cable installation, cable lists for their wiring;
- Points of connection to existing and adjoining systems;
- Configuration instructions.
 
The Working Project contains documents necessary for the investment substantiation and detailed assembling instructions, in particular:
- The General Descriptive Note, which describes the technical solutions made, the selected type and parameters of the equipment and its primary features;
- Sanitary Certificates and the calculation of Sanitary Protective Zones and Construction-Free Zones for the radio facilities under construction;
- Engineering calculations of the radio base station coverage zones and the radio relay channels parameters calculation;
- Layouts and assembly drawings for equipment installation;
- Ways of cable installation, cable lists for their wiring;
- Points of connection to existing and adjoining systems;
 
The Executive Documentation is issued after the Construction is complete and an integrate part of the Commissioning procedure. The Executive Documentation reflects the actually realized design solutions. The content and structure of the Executive Documentation strongly depends on the system. Normally, the Executive Document includes the following:
- Installation drawings, which ideally match the corresponding drawings in the Working Documentation or the Working Project;
- The system description for the operation, in particular: the indication, the marking, the cable lists;
- Configuration files necessary to understand the operation of the system (these are normally passed in the electronic form, as they contain lots of additional data);
- Methods of acceptance tests;
- The protocol of tests and measurements;
- Other instructions and materials necessary for the operations department.
 
 After the Expert Assessment procedure a positive or a negative conclusion is issued.
 A positive conclusion confirms that the communication facility construction in accordance with the provided documentation complies with all regulations and rules actual in the Russian Federation, and it doesn’t infringe rights of any natural persons or legal bodies. Besides, the construction in compliance with the Project is issued ensures the efficient expenditure of funds, assigned for the construction of networks, communication and computerization facilities from the Federal Budget and budgets of constituent entities of the RF.

 A negative conclusion means that it is necessary to update and complete the Design Documentation. After the documents are finalized, the Client can submit it for the Expert Assessment once again.


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